1. clothes, cloth, clothing clothes统指各种衣服，谓语动词永远是复数， cloth指布，为不可数名词 clothing 服装的总称，指一件衣服用a piece of, an article of amount后接不可数名词， number后接可数名词 a number of students sound自然界各种各样的声音，voice人的嗓音，noise噪音I hate the loud noise outside. cause 指造成某一事实或现象的直接原因，后接of sth./doing sth，reason用来解释某种现象或结果的理由，后接for sth./doing sth. the reason for being late 5. exercise, exercises, practice exercise运动，锻炼（不可数），exercises练习（可数），practice（反复做的）练习 Practice makes perfect. officer部队的军官，official政府官员 an army officer 二者均指工作。work不可数，job可数 a good jobcook厨师，cooker厨具 He is a good cook. problem常和困难连系，前面的动词常为think about, solve, raise，question常和疑问连系，多和ask, answer连用 10. a number of, the number of a number of许多，谓语动词用复数。the number of…的数目，谓语动词用单数。The number of students is increasing.二者均可指小鸡，chicken还可以当鸡肉 The chicken is delicious. 12. trip, journey, travel, voyage travel是最常用的，trip指短期的旅途，journey指稍长的旅途，voyage指海上航行 a three-day trip 13. in front of, in the front of in front of范围外的前面，in the front of范围内的前面 In the front of the room sits a boy. 14. three of us, the three of us three of us我们（不止三个）中的三个，the three of us我们三个（就三个人）The three of us---Tom, Jack and I went to the cinema. by bus表手段，方式，不用冠词，on the bus表范围 They went there by bus. 16. for a moment, for the moment for a moment 片刻，一会儿，for the moment暂时，一时 Thinking for a moment, he agreed. in a word总之，一句话， in words口头上 In a word, you are right. 18. in place of, in the place of in place of代替，in the place of在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one. 19. go to sea, by sea, by the sea go to sea当海员，出航，by sea乘船，由海路， by the sea在海边 go by sea 20. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher the doctor and teacher指一个人，既是医生又是老师，the doctor and the teacher两个人，一个医生和一个老师 the doctor and teacher is 21. in office, in the office in office在职的，in the office在办公室里 He is in office, not out of office. 22. in charge of, in the charge of in charge of管理，负责照料， in the charge of由……照料 He is in charge of the matter. The matter is in the charge of her. 23. out of question, out of the question out of question毫无疑问的，out of the question不可能的 a second又一，再一，the second第…… He won the second prize. by day白天，by the day按天计算 The workers are paid by the day. it同一物体，one同类不同一 I lost my pen. I have to buy a new one. 27. none, nothing, no one none强调有多少，nothing, no one强调有没有，nothing指物，no one指人 --- How many…/How much…? --- None. other后接名词复数，another后接名词单数 other students, another student 29. not a little, not a bit not a little非常，not a bit一点也不 I'm not a bit tired. 我一点儿也不累。 many和可数名词连用，much和不可数名词连用，a lot of可数，不可数均可，但不用于否定句 I haven't many books. no=not a/any no friend=not a/any friend no water=not any water 32. no more than, not more than no more than相当于only，仅仅，只有，not more than 至多，不超过 tall常指人或动物，high常指物体 He is tall. fast侧重于指人或物体具有运动速度快的特点，quickly侧重指某事完成或发生的快 run fast, answer the question quickly high具体的高，highly抽象的高，高度的 think highly of 36. sleeping, asleep, sleepy sleeping正在睡觉，asleep睡着，熟睡，只能做表语，sleepy困的，有睡意的 a sleeping baby The baby is asleep. I'm sleepy. 37. respectful, respectable respectful尊敬，有礼貌，respectable可敬的，值得尊敬的 be respectful to the aged 38. pleasant, pleased, pleasing pleasant常用作定语，pleased, pleasing常用作表语，pleased主语常为人，pleasing主语常为物 a pleasant trip The trip is pleasing. close接近，靠近，closely紧紧地，紧密地 closely connected, stand close ill做表语，sick定，表均可 a sick boy good形容词，well副词，但指身体状况是形容词 He is well again. hard努力，hardly几乎不 work hard I can hardly believe it. late迟，晚，lately最近，近来 I haven't seen him lately. 44. living, alive, live, lively living, alive, live均为活着的，living定表均可，alive定表均可，定语后置，live只能做定语，lively意为活波的 all the living people=all the people alive excited使人兴奋的，exciting令人兴奋的 I'm excited. The news is exciting. deep具体的深，deeply抽象的深，深深地 deeply moved, dig deep 47. before long, long before before long不久以后，long before很久以前 not long before = before long instead是副词，放在句首或句末，instead of是介词短语，放在句中He didn't see a film. Instead he watched TV. He watched TV instead of seeing a film. too much 后接不可数名词，much too后接形容词 much too heavy raise及物动词，rise不及物动词 The sun rises in the east. 51. bring, take, carry, fetch bring拿来，take带走，carry随身携带，fetch去回这一往返动作 fetch a box of chalk 52. spend, take, pay, cost spend人做主语，花钱，花时间; spend…on sth./in doing sth; take物做主语，花时间; pay人做主语，花钱，pay for; cost物做主语，花钱 53. join, join in, take part in join加入某个组织，并成为其中的一员；join in参加小型的活动, join sb. in；take part in 参加大型的活动 He joined the army five years ago.leave离开，leave for前往 He left Beijing for Shanghai. used to过去常常，be used to习惯于，后接sth./doing sth.；被用来，后接 do sth. He is used to getting up early.win后接sth.，反义词为lose, beat后接sb. win the game, beat them live on以…为主食，live by靠…谋生 live on fish/ live by fishing lose失去（具体的物体），错过 sth. is lost, lose the chance；miss 想念，错过sth. is missing, miss the chance59. be tired of, be tired with/from be tired of厌烦…，be tired with/from因为…而累了 be tired with/from running 800 meters care about关心，计较，在乎，一般多用于否定句中；care for关心，照料，喜欢，愿意 He doesn't care about his clothes. I don't care for movies.feed喂养，养活，饲养 (to give food to)， raise饲养，养育 (cause to grow, bring up children) raise the family 62. mean to do, mean doing mean to do打算，想要做某事，mean doing意思是，意味着 By this I mean giving the students more practice. a girl可泛指所有女孩, one girl一个女孩 Can one girl carry such a big box?64. in place of, in the place ofin place of代替，in the place of在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one.65. in secret, in the secretin secret秘密地，暗自地，偷偷地，一般用作状语；in the secret知道内情，知道秘密，一般用作表语 My mother was in the secret from the beginning.66. take a chair, take the chairtake a chair相当于sit down坐下，take the chair开始开会die from表示死于（枪）伤，虚弱，过度劳累，饮食过度等，die of表示死于疾病，饥饿，寒冷，年老，忧愁，失恋等精神因素 die of hunger and cold 68. pay for, pay back, pay off pay for为…付钱，pay back还钱，但不一定还清，pay off还清 pay for the book, pay off the debt arrive不及物动词，后接in (大地点)，at(小地点)，get不及物动词后接to，reach及物动词 arrive in Beijing, get to Beijing, reach Beijing manage to do设法做成了某事，try to do尽力去做某事但不一定成功 He tried to pass the exam, but he failed. 71. be familiar to, be familiar with be familiar to某物对某人来说是熟悉的，be familiar with某人熟悉某物 The book is familiar to me. I'm familiar with the book. 72. agree with, agree to, agree on agree with同意某人，agree to同意某事，agree on在…上达成一致意见，主语是复数 agree with you, agree to the plan receive收到某一东西，但不一定接受，accept接受 I received a gift, but I didn't accept it. wear和dress表状态,wear接衣服等,可用进行时，dress接人,be dressed in, put on表动作 It's cold outside. Put on your warm clothes. listen强调动作，hear强调结果 I listened, but I heard nothing. look看的动作，see看的结果，watch强调所看物体的变化、移动和发展watch TV lie躺，位于(lay, lain),说谎(lied, lied)，lay平放(laid, laid) lay the book hurt感情上受伤，injure事故中受伤，wound战争中受伤 He was wounded in the war. turn表突变，后常接表颜色的词，get强调变的结果，grow强调过程，逐渐的变化 turn yellow, get tired, grow big happen偶然性的没有预料到的事情的发生，take place必然性的发生 Great changes have taken place in my hometown. at小地点，in大地点 arrive at a small village, arrive in Shanghai 82. increase to, increase by increase to增长到…，increase by增长了… The number increased by 2,000 to 5,000. since接点时间或一句话，for接一段时间 for three years, since 3:00 84. on earth, on the earth, in the earth on earth在世上，在人间，到底，究竟，一点也不，on the earth在地上，在地球上，in the earth在地下，在泥土里 no use on earth 85. in surprise, to one's surprisein surprise惊奇地，to one's surprise使某人吃惊的是，86. in the air, on the air, in the sky in the air正在酝酿中，on the air播送，广播，in the sky在天空中 His show is on the air at 6:00 tonight. through穿越空间，across在…上穿过 through the forest, across the desert88. on the way, in the way on the way在前往…的路上，in the way挡路 The chair is in the way. above在上面，不接触，on在上面，接触，over在正上方 fly over the hill until到…为止， not…until直到…才（常跟点动词连用）I waited until 3:00. He didn't come until 3:00. 91. besides, except, except for besides除了…还（包括在内）except除了（不包括在内），except for整体…除了某一点以外 The composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes. 当是否解时，只有在宾语从句中二者可以互换，其余都用weather，当如果解时用if I don't know if/whether he will come. If he comes, I'll let you know. 93. because, since, as, for 原因由强到弱为：because, since/as, for. 在句中的位置如下：1)…because… 2) Since/as…, … 3) …, for… Since I was ill, I didn't go.94. when, as, while (表时间) when从句动词点动词，持续性动词均可，as重在表示动作同时发生，伴随进行，while从句动词为持续性动词 While I slept, a thief broke in. 95. the same…as, the same…that the same…as和…一样的（相似但不同一）， the same…that 同一物体 This is the same pen that I used yesterday. (同一支笔) as well也，常放于句末，和and连用表示既…又；as well as并列连词，不但…而且… He is a professor, and a writer as well.such…as像…样的，such…that如此…以至于 He is not such a fool as he looks like. He is such a good student that all the teachers like him. because连词，连接两句话，because of介词短语，后接词或短语 He didn't go to school because of his illness. 100. in order that, in order to 表目的，in order that后接句子，in order to后接动词原形 I got up early in order to catch the first bus. I got up early so that I could catch the first bus.